Terrorism in India
Terrorism refers to acts of violent (or the threat of act of violence) intended to create terror (fear), perpetrated for a religious, economic, ideological or political goal, and which deliberately disregard or target the safety of non-combats (neutral military civilians and personnel). In addition, terrorism encompasses acts of unlawful war and violence.
According to a report issued by global terrorism index 2014, India was ranked among the top ten countries to be significantly affected by terrorism activities in 2013. According to the home ministry, terrorism in India exhibits a significant threat to the citizens of India. Terrorism present in India includes religious terrorism, narco-terrorism, Ethno-nationalist and left-wing terrorism. The parts with prolonged terrorist activities have been Kashmir and Jammu, south central and east central India and the seven sister states. Only in 2013,205 of the 608 districts were significantly affected by terrorist activities and in 2012, terror attacks caused 231 deaths of civilians in India compared to 11098 worldwide terror caused death.
Causes of terrorism in India
There are several causes of terrorism in India. Firstly, the political cause is a primary source of terrorism in India. This is primarily seen in Tripura and Assam. The political factors that resulted in terrorism included the failure of the government to control and manage large scale illegal Muslim immigration from Bangladesh, to satisfy the economic demand benefit for the daughters and sons of the soil.
Secondly, economic causes also contribute to intense terrorism in India. Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh are prime examples. The economic factors include rural unemployment, exploitation of landless labourers by those who own land and lack of land reforms. These economic perceptions and grievances of gross social injustice have led to the rise of ideological groups of terrorists such as the several Marxist/Maoist groups existing under different names.
Thirdly, religious causes are also primary sources of terrorism in Kenya. In Punjab, some elements of Sikh belonging to different organisations shifted to terrorism to the development of an independent state known as Khalistan for the Sikhs. In J and K, Muslims associated with various organisations shifted to terrorism for conflicting objectives.
Economic impact of terrorism in India
According to economists, the already damaged economy of India as a result of the global financial crisis will further be affected by recent terrorist activities in the country. The immediate impact of terrorism is loss of lives, loss of money and destruction of property, but the worst loss of them all is fear and anxiety that negatively affects economic activities. Transportation, tourism and hospitality sectors are amongst the first areas to feel the pain.
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